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A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by Particle Acceleration and Detection.
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Takayama received the Japanese 21st Century Invention Prize for The only comprehensive monograph available on the topic Introduces new concepts see more benefits.

Buy eBook. Buy Hardcover. Buy Softcover. Rent the eBook. FAQ Policy. About this book A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Show all.

The editors have arranged the essays in the logical progression of chapters in a textbook. Table of contents 12 chapters Table of contents 12 chapters Introduction Pages Takayama, Ken et al.

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Modulators Pages Cook, Edward G. Induction Synchrotron Pages Takayama, Ken. Show next xx. These studies have allowed researchers to analyse pigments and dyes in glasses and ceramics, determine the age at death of a fossil or even determine how a sculpture was made. Web lightsources. Using particle accelerators, it is possible to date archaeological finds of organic origin, such as wood, bone, hair, seeds, paper, papyrus, textiles, as old as almost 50, years.

This is crucial for the reconstruction of the archaeological sequence of sites but also useful for determining, for example, whether a historical hypothesis for an event is compatible with the date of the materials associated to that event. It can also be used to check whether a work of art is compatible with its art-historical attribution or is a forgery.

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The technique used is known as Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy AMS and it is based on the direct measurement of radiocarbon 14 C concentration in a find. In fact, AMS is used to measure with very good precision and ultra-high sensitivity the residual quantity of this element, which allows us to determine the period of death of the organism: the more ancient a find, the lower the amount of residual radiocarbon.

Lecture 3. Linear induction accelerators. Linacs: standing wave

The amount of material required for an AMS radiocarbon measurement is very small, of the order of a milligram. AMS is a powerful tool in the arsenal of researchers working in the areas of cultural heritage and archaeology.

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For more information see the case study on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry available soon. Cargo scanning is a non-destructive method used for identifying the materials transported in containers.

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The idea is to take a radiograph of the container, like the ones we take of the human body. Techniques used to produce these radiographs use gamma rays, high energy X-rays, neutrons and muons. A radioactive source of Cobalt or Cesium is used for the production of gamma rays, while X-rays are produced by a linear particle accelerator. Different particles are used as probes which allow, in different ways, the contents of containers to be viewed. X-rays and gamma rays are used as complementary methods in cargo scanning as X-rays are able to penetrate further through steel than gamma rays cm for 1.

X-rays are more suited for detecting nuclear materials, but their use has higher costs and releases higher doses of radiation. Cargo scanning: X-ray radiography is a powerful tool used for scanning cargo at airports and harbours the world over.

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Image credit: Varian Medical Systems. Article [] Symmetry : High-energy X-rays search containers. Non-destructive testing is also performed using neutrons. Neutrons can be produced by a linear accelerator or with a radioactive source. For many respects, the behavior of neutrons is similar to that of X-rays.

However, the fundamental difference between X-rays and neutrons can be explained in the following way: X-rays interact with the electron clouds of the atoms, while neutrons interact weakly with the nuclei of atoms and this explains how they can penetrate deep into the sample.

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Neutrons can pass through even materials that are opaque to X-rays, such as metals. For more information see the case study: Using neutrons to make pictures. The idea behind muon radiography is different from the aforementioned techniques in so far as this method does not use a particle accelerator directly.